Visual Communication

It’s difficult to put visual work in strict categories, since many of the approaches serve multiple purposes. For the sake of helping to guide you to what you are looking for,  we are dividing this list into the basic function the approach serves.

  • Eliciting Meaning: Using images to spark associations and think differently
  • Organizing Meaning: Using visual tools to see your information in new ways
  • Conveying Meaning: Using images to get your ideas across more effectively

Eliciting Meaning

This is the area that VisualsSpeak specializes in: using images to start conversations, spark insights, and see things differently.

Gerald and Lindsay Zaltman

Visual Anthropology

There are a number of approaches to using visuals with verbal information in the field of anthropology. The photo-elicitation process has been used since the 1950’s to deepen understanding across cultures. Some of the references to this work include:

  • Clark-Ibanez, M. (2004). Framing the social world with photo-elicitation interviews. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(12), 1507 – 1527.
  • Collier, J. J. (1957). Photography in anthropology: A report on two experiments. American Anthropologist, 59(5), 843 – 859.
  • Collier, J. J., & Collier, M. (1986). Visual anthropology: Photography as a research method (revised and expanded edition ed.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico.
  • Harper, D. (2002). Talking about pictures: A case for photo-elicitation. Visual Studies, 17(1), 13 – 26.
  • Samuels, J. (2004). Breaking the ethnographer’s frames: Reflections on the use of photo elicitation in understanding Sri Lankan monastic culture. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(12), 1528 – 1550.

Organizing Meaning

Dan Roam

Dave Gray

David Straker

National Visualization and Analytics Center

Graphic Facilitation

David Sibbet

Nancy Margulies and Christine Valenza

Christina Merkeley

International Forum of Visual Practitioners

Mind Mapping

Jamie Nast

Chuck Frey

Conveying Meaning

Nancy Duarte

Cliff Atkinson

Garr Reynolds

Edward Tufte

Connie Malamed